Coffee comes from 2 main species of tree - Coffea Arabica and Coffea Canephora. We call these Arabica and Robusta for short. Robusta is easier to grow, produces more fruit with stronger flavour, more crema and higher caffeine content. Arabica is more expensive to produce but generally has better quality flavour and wide varieties available. Robusta can be useful when blended with Arabica to create desirable characteristics in espresso, for example, but most of it ends up used for making instant coffee.
There are many varieties of Arabica grown across the world. Each has it’s own flavour profile but factors like climate, altitude and soil content will create differences within beans from the same variety.
Basic flavour profiles for some of the common varieties of Arabica.
What to expect from different regions.